Como exportar um dump de uma base Oracle com o Data Pump

Um dump de um banco de dados Oracle é simplesmente uma cópia “lógica” do banco de dados, ou seja, da estrutura de objetos do banco e de comandos para a criação dessas estruturas e do insert dos dados.

Um dump não é, por si mesmo, a melhor e mais segura estratégia de backup mas é um importante complemento para suas rotinas de backup.

Para usar o Oracle Data Pump para exportar um dump do banco de dados, inicialmente é preciso definir um diretório onde o dump será salvo. Esse diretório é criado por um usuário com privilégias de SYSDBA. Posteriormente damos permissão de acesso ao diretório para que outru usuário, por exemplo o SYSTEM, possa gerar o dump.

Vamos criar o diretório, nomeando-o de diretorio_datapump, e vamos dar permissões para o usuário SYSTEM. Acesse o SQL*Plus e execute os seguintes comandos:

usuario@servidor:~> sqlplus / as sysdba

SQL> create or replace directory diretorio_datapump
  2  as '/u05/dpump';

Directory created.

SQL> grant read, write
  2  on directory diretorio_datapump
  3  to system;

Grant succeeded.

Para realizar o dump full do banco de dados, basta usar o comando expdb (export usando data pump). A sintaxe é um pouco esquisita (principalmente o flashback_time) e você deve digitar exatamente como está abaixo, incluindo as contra-barras, as aspas simples e aspas duplas:

usuario@servidor:~> expdp userid=system full=y directory=diretorio_datapump dumpfile=backup.dpump logfile=backup.dpump.log flashback_time=\"to_timestamp\(to_char\(sysdate,\'yyyy-mm-dd hh24:mi:ss\'\),\'yyyy-mm-dd hh24:mi:ss\'\)\"

A senha do usuário SYSTEM será solicitada e o processo se iniciará. O dump será gravado no diretório “diretorio_datapump” que configuramos anteriormente, juntamente com o arquivo de log.

Se tudo correu bem você verá uma mensagem parecida com a seguinte:

Dump file set for SYSTEM.SYS_EXPORT_FULL_01 is:
 /u05/dpump/backup.dpump
Job "SYSTEM"."SYS_EXPORT_FULL_01" successfully completed at Tue Dec 8 17:26:26 2015 elapsed 0 00:02:46

Se quiser, use esse comando em um script e automatize o dump diariamente. Tenha em mente que dependendo do tamanho do banco de dados, como um banco de muitos terabytes, um dump não é prático. Mas se seu banco for de tamanho razoável, o dump é um ótimo acompanhante para sua rotina de backup.

657 thoughts on “Como exportar um dump de uma base Oracle com o Data Pump”

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